Дифтонг

Дифтонг (греч. δίφθογγος, греч. diphthongos, обозначает «с двумя звуками» или «с двумя тонами») — устойчивые сочетания двух букв в письменности языка, читаемые одинаково практически во всех случаях. При этом произношение звуков не совпадает с их чтением согласно алфавита.

Примеры:

  • В немецком языке есть дифтонг -eu-. Согласно алфавита, «е» обозначает звук «э», а «u» обозначает звук «у», но дифтонг произносится как «ой»: Euro(Евро)- произносится как [`ойро].

Дифтонги присутствуют почти во всех языках.

Содержание

Чешский

В чешском языке существует три дифтонга:

  • /aʊ̯/ как в auto (почти исключительно в словах иностранного происхождения)
  • /eʊ̯/ как в euro (только в словах иностранного происхождения)
  • /oʊ̯/ как в koule

Группы гласных ia, ie, ii, io и iu в интостранных словах не рассматриваются как дифтонги, они произносятся как /j/ между гласными [ɪja, ɪjɛ, ɪjɪ, ɪjo, ɪju].

Нидерландский

Дифтонги в Dutch

Английский

Дифтонги в General American accent of English:

Дифтонги в Received Pronunciation of British English:

The last three diphthongs also occur in the Boston accent.

(see International Phonetic Alphabet for English for more)

Allophones of the diphthongs /aʊ/ and /aɪ/ in Canadian English (See Canadian raising:

Дифтонги в Australian English phonology:

Фарерский

Дифтонги в Faroese are:

  • /ai/ as in bein (can also be short)
  • /au/ as in havn
  • /ɛa/ as in har, mær
  • /ɛi/ as in hey
  • /ɛu/ as in nevnd
  • /œu/ as in nøvn
  • /ʉu/ as in hús
  • /ʊi/ as in mín, , (can also be short)
  • /ɔa/ as in ráð
  • /ɔi/ as in hoyra (can also be short)
  • /ɔu/ as in sól, ovn

Финский

Дифтонги в Finnish

Французский

Дифтонги в French:

All these diphthongs are typically analysed as a combination of a vowel and a semi-vowel or the opposite in French.

Немецкий

Дифтонги в German:

Some diphthongs in Bernese, a Swiss German dialect:

  • /iə/ as in Bier 'beer'
  • /yə/ as in Füess 'feet'
  • /uə/ as in Schue 'shoes'
  • /ow/ as in Stou 'holdup'
  • /aw/ as in Stau 'stable'
  • /aːw/ as in Staau 'steel'
  • /æw/ as in Wäut 'world'
  • /æːw/ as in wääut 'elects'
  • /ʊw/ as in tschúud 'guilty'

Венгерский

There are no diphthongs in standard Hungarian, although most speakers pronounce the letters au in certain words (e.g. autó and augusztus) as one syllable, like an /ɑw/ diphthong. In other words, they are usually pronounced separately (as in kalauz).

On the other hand, there are various diphthongs in Hungarian dialects.

Исландский

Дифтонги в Icelandic are the following:

  • /aw/ as in , "yes"
  • /jɛ/ as in vél, "machine"
  • /ow/ as in nóg, "enough"
  • /øɥ/ as in auga, "eye"
  • /aj/ as in , "hi"
  • /ej/ as in þeir, "they"

Норвежский

Пять дифтонгов в Norwegian:

In addition there is the diphthong /ʉʏ/, but this only occur in the word hui in the expression i hui og hast "in great haste".

Итальянский

Дифтонги в стандартном Italian:

falling
rising

Other combinations (including [ui], [iu], [ii]) are often considered hiatuses by grammarians; however they are often phonetically true diphthongs, such as in poetry and common speech.

Northern Sami

The diphthong system in Northern Sami varies considerably from one dialect to another. The Western Finnmark dialects distinguish four different qualities of opening diphthongs:

  • /eæ/ as in leat "to be"
  • /ie/ as in giella "language"
  • /oa/ as in boahtit "to come"
  • /uo/ as in vuodjat "to swim"

In terms of quantity, Northern Sami shows a three-way contrast between long, short and finally stressed diphthongs. The last are distinguished from long and short diphthongs by a markedly long and stressed second component. Diphthong quantity is not indicated in spelling.

Португальский

Falling diphthongs with /i/ or /u/ as their weaker vowel are frequent in Portuguese. Rising diphthongs, with /i/ or /u/ as their weaker vowel, occur less often, and many of them may also be analysed as hiatuses (e.g., fé-rias [as diphthong] or fé-ri-as [as hiatus]: both analyses are grammatically acceptable in Portuguese). The difference between a rising diphthong and a hiatus is not phonemic; the former are usually found in colloquial speech, and the latter in careful pronunciation. Triphthongs also occur (e.g. /uai/ as in Paraguai, or /iau/ as in miau). Longer sequences of vowels may also occur, but they can be analysed as sequences of vowels and diphthongs. Just like the monophthonghs, diphthongs are divided into two subgroups: oral diphthongs and nasal diphthongs.

Diphthongs in Portuguese:

oral
falling diphthongs
rising diphthongs
nasal

Румынский

Romanian builds its descending diphthongs using two semivowels and its ascending diphthongs using four. See also Romanian phonology.

falling
rising

Испанский

Diphthongs in Spanish:

falling
rising
 
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